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Full text of "A History of the Personal Computer"

Chapter 13 Other Software in the 1980' s 

The 1980' s began with a continuation in the shift 
from the technical programming language enthusiast, to 
the increased use of application software. Business 
productivity programs such as databases, spreadsheets 
and word processors became a major segment of the 
software market. The release of more powerful 
microprocessors, less expensive memory and storage 
devices accelerated these changes. Ease-of-use and user 
friendly were the terms used to describe the new focus 
for software in the 1980' s. Incorporation of innovative 
graphics helped to establish this new focus. These 
market demands and the introduction of the IBM Personal 
Computer in 1981, resulted in major changes and a rapid 
expansion of the software industry. However, between 
1983 and 1984, a severe downturn in the personal 
computer industry, caused significant financial problems 
for a number of software companies . The operating system 
segment of the software market also experienced 
significant change. 

13.1... Operating Systems 

Seattle Computer Products 

Seattle Computer Products, Inc., had developed an 
Intel 8086 microprocessor card for the S-100 bus in May 
1979. They reguired a 16-bit disk operating system and 
proposed to use Digital Research CP/M-86 which had been 
promised for the end of 1979. In April 1980 CP/M-86 was 
not available and Seattle Computer Products decided to 
develop its own operating system. It was written by Tim 
Paterson and called QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating 
System) because it was created so guickly (in two man- 
months) . QDOS 0.1 was released in August 198 0. 

QDOS was similar to CP/M. Paterson obtained 
compatibility with CP/M by incorporating a translator 
that converted 8080 instructions into 8086 instructions. 
He then provided eguivalent CP/M functions to operate on 
the 8086 microprocessor. Paterson also improved the data 



13/1 



13/2 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

storage capabilities and file organization of QDOS as 
compared to CP/M by using the Microsoft concept of a 
file allocation table (FAT) . This concept controlled the 
disk format and space allocation. 

Seattle Computer Products contacted Microsoft in 
early August regarding adapting 808 6 BASIC to QDOS and a 
possible cross-licensing agreement. In September 1980 
Microsoft purchased non-exclusive rights to the Seattle 
Computer Products operating system. Then in November 
1980 Microsoft signed a contract with IBM to provide a 
variety of software including an operating system for 
their new PC Computer. A new version of the operating 
system called 86-DOS 0.3 was released in late 1980. 
Version 1.0 was released in April 1981 which was very 
similar to Microsoft MS-DOS. Then Tim Paterson left 
Seattle Computer Products and joined Microsoft in May 
1981. Microsoft purchased all rights to the Seattle 
Computer Products disk operating system, in July 1981 

Digital Research 

In late August 1980, IBM visited Digital Research 
to negotiate the possible use or adaptation of CP/M for 
its new PC computer. However Digital Research would not 
sign an IBM non-disclosure agreement that resulted in a 
termination of the meeting. Then in September it became 
apparent that Digital Research would not assign the 
resources reguired to provide a 16-bit version of CP/M 
in the time schedule reguired by IBM. This resulted in 
IBM selecting Microsoft to provide the PC computer 
operating system. 

The negotiations with IBM were indicative of 
company organizational problems. This resulted in John 
Rowley being hired as president in November 1981. 

CP/M-8 6 was a 16-bit version of the CP/M operating 
system developed by Digital Research for the Intel 8086 
microprocessor. Some early copies were available in 
1981, however it was not released for use on the IBM 
Personal Computer until April 1982 . The software was 
priced from $175 to $240, which was considerably higher 
than the $60 IBM charged for the Microsoft operating 
system. The price was subseguently reduced, but the late 



Other Software in the 1 980's 13/3 

release, higher price and a lack of support from IBM 
limited sales. 

Concurrent CP/M-8 6 is a program developed by 
Digital Research during 1982/83 to enable multitasking. 
This provided the capability of running up to four 
processes or programs at the same time. The company also 
developed another operating system called Concurrent DOS 
for the DOS environment in 198 4. 

Then in May 1988, Digital Research released 
Version 3.3 of DR-DOS (Digital Research - Disk Operating 
System), an operating system compatible with MS-DOS. 
This first release of DR-DOS was followed by Version 
3.40 in January 1989 and Version 3.41 in June 1989. 

Microsoft 

Microsoft entered the operating system segment of 
the software market when it developed XENIX in August 

1980. Then with the release of the IBM PC computer in 
August 1981, Microsoft became a significant provider of 
operating system software (see Sections 12.2 and 12.3) . 
See Appendix B for a description of the different 
versions and corresponding release dates of DOS. 

IBM 

IBM contracted with Microsoft to provide the 
operating system for its PC computer released in August 

1981. IBM added some utilities to the Microsoft 
operating system and called it PC-DOS. Then in 1984 IBM 
entered into a joint development agreement with 
Microsoft to develop a new operating system that became 
OS/2 (see Section 9.5). 

Apple Computer 

Apple Computer released the Sophisticated 
Operating System (SOS) for the Apple III computer in May 
1980. It was one of the earliest operating systems to 
have installable device drivers. 

The Professional Disk Operating System (ProDOS) 
was developed for the Apple II computer and evolved from 
the Apple III computer SOS operating system. It also 
resulted from a reguirement to provide an interface with 
peripheral devices other than the Disk II drive, a 



13/4 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

hierarchical directory structure and peripheral device 
drivers. ProDOS was released in January 1984 and was 
subsequently renamed ProDOS 8. 

The Professional Disk Operating System 16 (ProDOS 
16) was a 16-bit operating system released with the 
Apple IIGS computer in September 198 6. 

The GS/OS native operating system was released for 
the Apple IIGS computer in September 198 8. It 
incorporated the concept of File System Translators 
(FST's) to determine disk format for the selection of 
device drivers. Version 5 of the Apple IIGS System 
software was released in May 1989. It was a significant 
upgrade of the system software with improvements in 
performance, graphics and file operations. 

Other Operating Systems 

Douglas L. Michels founded The Santa Cruz 
Operation (SCO) , Inc. in 1979. The company started 
developing UNIX-based operating systems in the early 
1980's. 

UCSD p-System is an operating system that included 
UCSD Pascal. It was provided by SofTech Microsystems for 
the IBM Personal Computer released in 1981. It had a 
price of about $450. 

Mach is a UNIX based micro-kernel operating system 
developed by Richard (Rick) Rashid at Carnegie-Mellon 
University in the mid 1980's. It was designed to be 
portable to many types of hardware and multiprocessor 
computers. It formed the basis for the NeXTSTEP 
operating system and influenced the design of the 
Microsoft Windows NT operating system. 

NeXTSTEP is a UNIX-based operating system released 
with the NeXT computer in October 1988. Avidis Tevanian 
who had been one of the lead designers of the UNIX Mach 
system at Carnegie-Mellon University, was the chief 
software designer at NeXT. IBM subsequently licensed 
NeXTSTEP with the intent of adapting the system for its 
new workstation. 



Other Software in the 1 980's 13/5 

Operating System User Interfaces 

Operating system user interfaces received a lot of 
attention from hardware and software suppliers between 
1980 and 1983. Apple Computer had developed a graphical 
user interface for the Lisa and Macintosh computers. 
VisiCorp demonstrated Vision in late 1982 and Microsoft 
had initiated an extensive development of a system that 
would become Windows (see Section 12.4) in 1983. 

Vision is a multiwindow graphical environment 
program that was demonstrated by VisiCorp (formerly 
Personal Software) at the November 1982 COMDEX show in 
Las Vegas. VisiCorp released the program in November 
1983. It had taken between two to three years to develop 
under the code name of Quasar. William T. Coleman was 
the group manager responsible for the development of 
Vision and related application programs. The software 
interfaced between the IBM PC operating system and user 
application programs. It utilized high resolution 
graphics, a mouse and had its own application programs. 
It was machine and device independent. The program cost 
$495 at introduction, then after poor sales the price 
was reduced to $95. However Vision could only run 
programs written for the interface. The only programs 
available at the release were VisiCalc, VisiGraph and 
VisiWord from VisiCorp. This limitation was detrimental 
to its widespread acceptance. Vision created financial 
difficulties for VisiCorp. Control Data Corporation 
subseguently purchased the Vision software. 

DESQ is a windowing system developed by 
Quarterdeck Office Systems in May 1984. It could 
multitask DOS programs but did not have a graphical 
interface. It was not successful. Quarterdeck 
subseguently developed DESQview for use with IBM TopView 
in July 1985. 

Digital Research developed GEM (Graphics 
Environment Manager) . Lee Lorenzen was a principal in 
the software development. It had a graphical user 
interface with a "look and feel" similar to the 
Macintosh computer, but could not multitask DOS 
programs . It was demonstrated at the COMDEX show in 
October 198 4. The company also developed a number of 
application programs for use with the system. During 



13/6 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

1985 changes were made to the user interface, due to 
threatened litigation by Apple because of the 
similarities to Macintosh. 

Hewlett-Packard developed NewWave PC that is an 
interface for use with Microsoft Windows. HP announced 
NewWave in November 198 7. It included additional 
features to make Windows easier to use that had 
similarities to the Apple Macintosh system. This 
resulted in litigation by Apple Computer in March 1988. 

Berkeley Softworks released GEOS (Graphic 
Environment Operating System) that was ProDOS-compatible 
in March 1988. It had a Mac-style desktop, word 
processor and spelling checker. 

Other operating system interfaces are Microsoft 
Windows (see Section 12.4) , IBM Presentation Manager and 
TopView (see Section 9.5) and a TopView clone called 
Mondrian. Metaphor Computer Systems is a company founded 
by David Liddle and Donald Massaro in 1983, that 
developed a windows-like graphical user interface for 
the PC computer. 

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 
developed the X Window System for the UNIX operating 
system. The X Window System is a graphical 
communications interface that provides a standard way of 
controlling graphic displays from one X Window System to 
another. Graphical user interfaces that have been 
developed for the X Window System are DECwindows, Open 
Look by UNIX International and OSF/Motif by the Open 
Software Foundation. 



Other Software m the 1 980's 13/7 

13.2 ... Programming Languages 
BASIC 

As a result of demands for structured programming 
concepts, Dartmouth College developed a powerful BASIC 
compiler in 1983, called Dartmouth Structured BASIC, 
also known as SBASIC. After many conflicting 
requirements and technological changes since the 
formation of a standards committee in 1974, the American 
National Standards Institute (ANSI) completed a draft 
for a "full" BASIC standard in 1983. This led Dartmouth 
College to develop a compiler based on the new standard 
that would be portable to most personal computers. 
Dartmouth released this new compiler named True BASIC in 
1984. 

During the 1980' s, the availability of more 
powerful computers and increased memory, resulted in a 
move from interpreters to compilers for new BASIC 
programming languages . Examples of these are the Digital 
Research CBASIC-8 6 compiler, Microsoft QuickBASIC and 
the Tandy Radio Shack RSBASIC compiler 

Borland announced Turbo BASIC at the fall COMDEX 
show in November 198 6. 

c 

Borland released Turbo C at a price of $99.95 in 
the late 1980's. 

C++ 

B j arne Stroustrup developed the C++ programming 
language at Bell Telephone Laboratories. C++ is an 
object-oriented extension of the C language. C++ became 
available in 1986. 

Logo 

In the summer of 1982 Logo became available for 
the Apple II and TI-99/4A computers. 



13/8 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

Modula-2 

Modula-2 is a general purpose systems 
implementation language based on the use of modules. It 
was developed by Niklaus Wirth after a number of years 
research on the capabilities of Pascal. The initial 
Modula language was described by Wirth in 1977 and an 
improved version Modula-2 was available in 1982. 

The first commercial implementation of Modula-2 
was announced by Volition Systems in December 1982. It 
was released for a number of computers including the 
Apple II, Apple III and 8080/Z80 based systems. 

Oberon 

Oberon is an object-oriented systems programming 
language developed by professors Niklaus Wirth and Jurg 
Gutknecht at the ETH (Eidgenossische Technische 
Hochschule) in Zurich, Switzerland. The language is a 
distillation of the best features from Pascal and 
Modula-2 . Oberon is smaller and simpler than its 
predecessors. The software was developed in conjunction 
with CERES, which was a single-board graphics 
workstation. Work on the language began in 1985. Wirth 
named the language in tribute to the precision of the 
Voyager spacecraft as it flew past Uranus ' s moon of the 
same name (Oberon) in 1988. Implementations are 
available for Apple Mac II ' s, DEC DECstations, IBM RISC 
System/6000 workstations, Intel based PC's and Sun 
SPARCstations . 

Pascal 

Microsoft developed a Pascal compiler for the IBM 
PC in April 1983 that had a price of $300. Then in March 
1989 Microsoft released Quick Pascal. 

UCSD Pascal was originally developed at the 
University of California, San Diego (UCSD) . The UCSD 
system included the programming language and the UCSD 
operating system and was supplied by SofTech 
Microsystems, Inc. 

Philippe Kahn moved from France to the USA and 
founded Borland International, Inc. in 1983. Turbo 
Pascal was the first product developed by Kahn. The 
compiler was introduced by an advertisement in the 



Other Software in the 1 980's 13/9 

November 1983 issue of Byte magazine at a price of only 
$49.95. It was an innovative program with an integrated 
programming environment. It facilitated program 
development by having a built-in text editor from which 
one could compile, correct errors and run the program. 
The program was an immediate success. Some other 
programs released by Borland are the Paradox database, 
Quattro Pro spreadsheet and Sidekick. 

PL/I 

Digital Research developed a three-pass compiler 
for PL/I in 1980. The compiler was written in PL/M and 
was based on the G Subset of PL/I which was an 
adaptation for minicomputers. The first two passes 
produced symbol tables and intermediate language 
suitable for various hardware systems. The third pass, 
optimized the code and developed the final machine code 
for a specific system. 

13.3... Word Processors 

The 1980' s was a period of transition for word 
processing. The market changed from companies such as 
IBM, Lanier and Wang Laboratories supplying dedicated 
word processors, to the use of general purpose personal 
computers and word processing software from other 
independent companies . The dominant companies changed in 
1983 from Wang to MicroPro providing Word-Star, then to 
the WordPerfect Corporation in 1986. However by 1989, 
Microsoft Word and WordPerfect had close to egual shares 
of the market. 

EasyWriter 

In 1981, IBM negotiated with Bill Baker of 
Information Unlimited Software (IUS) to adapt the Apple 
II EasyWriter word processor for their new personal 
computer. An agreement was reached and John Draper with 
assistance from Larry Weiss of IUS developed the program 
for the IBM PC. It had a price of $175 and was released 
with the support of IBM in August 1981. The program did 
not receive good reviews. However, it had good initial 



13/10 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

sales, because it was the only word processor available 
for the IBM PC at its introduction. Improvements were 
made to the program, but it did not compete successfully 
with later word processors. In 1983, Computer Associates 
International purchased IUS from Bill Baker for over $10 
million. 

WordStar 

For the founding of MicroPro International and the 
introduction of Word-Star in 1979, see Section 7.3. 
MicroPro adapted Word-Star to the IBM PC in mid 1982 and 
it guickly gained a dominant share of the market. Other 
company products were CalcStar, DataStar and InfoStar, 
MailMerge and SpellStar. The company became a public 
corporation in March 1984. A new version of the word 
processor named Word-Star 2000 with a new interface was 
introduced at the fall COMDEX show in 1984. However it 
functioned slower and received a poor reception. This 
was a turning point in the dominance of MicroPro as the 
leading supplier of word processors. The company changed 
its name to WordStar International in 1989. 

WordPerfect 

Alan Ashton who was a Ph.D. graduate in computer 
science from the University of Utah, started developing 
the specification for a word processing program in the 
summer of 1977. The specification defined innovative 
features for word processors at that time. It included 
text scrolling, use of function keys and automatic on- 
screen editing. In 1978, Bruce Bastian started working 
with Ashton to develop the software for the word 
processor . 

A simplified version of the software called P-Edit 
for program editing was released and sold by an 
associate Don Owens. Ashton, Bastian and Owens then 
formed a company called Satellite Software International 
(SSI) in September 1979 to market P-Edit and the new 
word processor. The word processor was completed in 
March 1980 and called SSI*WP. The software only worked 
on a Data General computer system and the retail price 
of the program was $5,500. However the program was easy 
to use and fast. 



Other Software in the 1980's 13/11 

In October 1980, W. E. Pete Peterson who was a 
brother-in-law of Bastian joined the company. At the end 
of 1981 Owens was removed as an officer of the company 
and Peterson became manager of sales and marketing and 
subseguently an executive vice president. 

In early 1982 the company started adapting P-Edit 
for the IBM Personal Computer and completed the 
conversion in August. Work on the conversion of SSI*WP 
to the IBM PC was completed in the fall of 1982. The 
name WordPerfect was selected for the program, then it 
was announced to the press in October. WordPerfect was 
released as version 2.20 and shipped in November. The 
program had innovative features and the company provided 
excellent customer support. 

In early 1983, SSI purchased Don Owens share of 
the company for $139,000. Ashton and Bastian now owned 
50 percent each of the SSI stock. Peterson subseguently 
received a small percentage of the shares. Versions 3.0 
and 4.0 were released at the 1983 and 1984 fall COMDEX 
shows respectively. Also in 1984, the company name was 
changed to SSI Software. With the release of version 
4.0, reviews were very favorable and sales set new 
records in 1985. 

Other company products were MathPlan (later named 
PlanPerfect) , SSI*Data (later named DataPerfect) , a 
legal-time-and-billing system named SSI*Legal and a 
version of the Forth programming language named 
SSI*Forth. In 1986, the company name was changed to 
WordPerfect Corporation and WordPerfect became the 
leading word processing program. Executive WordPerfect, 
a "junior" version of WordPerfect was released for 
portable computers in May 1987. In 1988 the company 
released WordPerfect Office incorporating electronic 
mail for networks, a version of WordPerfect for the 
Apple Macintosh in April and version 5.0 of WordPerfect 
for the IBM PC in May 

In 1989, the tenth anniversary of the company 
founding, WordPerfect had achieved significant success. 
However with the release of graphical user interfaces by 
IBM in OS/2 and by Microsoft with Windows, increasing 
demands were occurring in the marketplace for 
WordPerfect to provide a graphical version of its word 



13/12 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

processor. Due to competitive concerns with Microsoft 
Word and higher expectations for the success of the IBM 
OS/2 operating system, the company decided to emphasize 
the development of a version of WordPerfect for OS/2 
first . 

Other Word Processors 

Paul Lutus developed a new word processor for the 
Apple II computer in 198 0, with a number of improvements 
as compared to his previous Apple Writer program. Lutus 
negotiated a royalty agreement for the program with 
Apple Computer instead of the flat fee received 
previously. The program called Apple Writer II was 
released by Apple Computer in 1981. It became a very 
popular word processor for the Apple II computer and 
made Lutus guite wealthy. 

Timothy E. Gill founded Quark, Inc., in 1981. Gill 
developed an early word processor called Word Juggler 
for the Apple III computer. Farhad Fred Ebrahimi 
purchased half of the company in 198 6. 

MultiMate is the name of a series of word 
processing programs initially developed by MultiMate 
International Corporation. The company was established 
in 1982 and was acguired by Ashton-Tate, in December 
1985. The first program developed was MultiMate 
Professional Word Processor. An improved version with 
additional advanced features was called MultiMate 
Advantage Professional Word Processor. An easy-to-use 
version of the program called MultiMate Executive Word 
Processor is also available. 

Camila Wilson developed Volkswriter and founded 
Lifetree Software Inc., in 1982. Volkswriter was 
introduced at the West Coast Computer Faire in March 
1982. The program was written in Microsoft Pascal. It 
was one of the earliest effective word processors for 
the IBM PC computer. It was priced at $195 and a deluxe 
version at $295. 

Bank Street Writer is a word processing program 
that was developed by a group of Boston programmers for 
Apple II computers. Br0derbund Software obtained the 
publication rights and released it in December 1982. 
Br0derbund subseguently released it for Atari computers. 



Other Software in the 1 980's 13/13 

pf s : Write was developed by Software Publishing 
Corporation in the early 1980 ' s. It became a popular 
word processing program with significant market 
penetration. See Section 13.5 for initial developments 
at Software Publishing Corporation. 

Other word processing programs such as the Apple 
Computer MacWrite, IBM Displaywrite, Lotus Ami Pro 
(developed by the Samna company and subseguently became 
WordPro) , Microsoft Word and Sierra On-Line Homeword 
shared the market. See Section 12.6 for details of 
Microsoft Multi-Tool Word, Word and Word for Windows 
word processing programs. 



13.4 ... Spreadsheets 



Lotus 1-2-3 

Lotus 1-2-3 was co-developed by Mitchell D. Kapor 
and Jonathan M. Sachs in 1981. Sachs was a graduate in 
mathematics from MIT and spent fourteen years studying 
and working at various positions at MIT. In the mid 
seventies Sachs left MIT and supervised the development 
of an operating system at Data General. Following this 
he co-founded Concentric Data Systems where he designed 
a spreadsheet to run on Data General hardware. Kapor is 
a graduate in psychology from Yale University and 
partially completed a masters degree at MIT. In 1978/79 
Kapor co-developed a program called Tiny Troll and in 
1981 two programs called VisiPlot and VisiTrend. 

In 1981 Sachs and Kapor reached an agreement to 
adapt Sachs spreadsheet program for the new IBM Personal 
Computer. Sachs had strong technical experience, 
especially in assembly language and Kapor had successful 
commercial experience in program development, with 
special skills in the design of the user interface. 
Kapor and Sachs assigned the code name of TRIO to the 
software development project. 

To finance the initial development and company 
startup they contacted Sevin-Rosen Partners. Benjamin M. 
Rosen was a venture capitalist who had purchased Tiny 
Troll from Kapor. Rosen and his partner L. J. Sevin and 
other investors entered into an agreement to help 



13/14 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

finance with the development and introduction of the 
spreadsheet software. Lotus Development Corporation was 
founded in April 1982. The name Lotus was selected by 
Kapor, and comes from India where it is associated with 
the concept of perfect enlightenment. 

The program featured natural-order recalculation, 
integrated graphics capability for charting, had a 
limited database capability and provided a computer 
based user tutorial. However the program reguired 128K 
bytes of memory. The software was optimized for a PC 
computer with the increased memory capacity and took 
advantage of the more powerful capabilities of the Intel 
8088 microprocessor. The software was very fast in 
operation and achieved extra speed by going around DOS . 

Lotus 1-2-3, was announced in October 1982, 
demonstrated at the November 1982 COMDEX show in Las 
Vegas and shipped in January 1983. It was an immediate 
success and soon replaced VisiCalc as the dominant 
spreadsheet program. 

The company became a public corporation in October 
1983. An improved version 2.0 of Lotus 1-2-3 was 
released in November 1985. Jim P. Manzi became president 
of Lotus in 198 4 and chairman after the departure of 
Mitchell Kapor in July 198 6. Lotus 1-2-3/3 was a new 
improved version of Lotus 1-2-3 that was announced in 
April 1987 for IBM OS/2 systems. In September 1987 Lotus 
announced it would be delayed, it was finally released 
in June 1989. 

VisiCalc 

Reference Section 7.4 for the founding of Software 
Arts and the initial development of VisiCalc in 1979. 

In February 1980, Robert Frankston of Software 
Arts developed the DIF format for VisiCalc to facilitate 
data transfer. During 1980/81 Software Arts adapted 
VisiCalc to other computers such as the Atari, Commodore 
Pet, IBM PC and Radio Shack TRS-80. VisiCalc Advanced 
Version was released with additional features at the 
National Computer Conference in 1982. In early 1982, 
Personal Software, Inc. changed the name of the company 
to VisiCorp. Subseguently Software Arts and VisiCorp had 
disputes regarding the development and marketing of 



Other Software in the 1 980's 13/15 

VisiCalc. In September 1983 it resulted in litigation, 
and in early 198 4 Software Arts terminated its marketing 
agreement with VisiCorp. The litigation was settled out- 
of-court in September 1984 in favor of Software Arts. 

Lotus 1-2-3 had significantly impacted the sales 
of VisiCalc. Also the development costs of Vision and 
the litigation had affected the financial viability of 
VisiCorp. VisiCorp merged with Palladin Software in 
November 198 4. Then Software Arts was purchased by Lotus 
Development Corporation for $6.5 million in April 1985. 
Daniel Bricklin became a consultant for Lotus, then he 
founded a new software publishing company called 
Software Garden, Inc. 

Other Spreadsheets 

See Section 10.4 for the Apple Computer LisaCalc 
and Section 12.6 for details of Microsoft Electronic 
Paper, Multiplan and Excel spreadsheets. 

SuperCalc was designed by Gary Balleisen and 
released by a company called Sorcim for the CP/M market. 
Richard Frank owned the company whose name is micros 
spelled backwards. Subseguently improvements were 
incorporated in the release of SuperCalc3 and SuperCalc5 
that featured 3-dimensional capabilities. The 
spreadsheet was acquired by Computer Associates 
International in 1984. 

Randy Wigginton developed Full Impact for the 
Macintosh in 198 9. The program was marketed by Ashton- 
Tate . 

Quattro Pro was a spreadsheet program developed by 
a company in Hungary and released by Borland 
International in 1987. Version 2.0 was released in 
November 1989. 

Other spreadsheet programs developed during the 
1980's were: Javelin by Javelin Software, pfs:Plan by 
Software Publishing, SCO Professional by Santa Cruz 
Operation, T/Maker by Heidi and Peter Roizen, VP-Planner 
by Paperback Software and WingZ for the Apple Macintosh 
by Informix. Spreadsheet add-on programs were released 
during the 1980' s to provide additional features. 
Examples of these are pf s : Graph by Software Publishing 



13/16 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

and a program called Sideways, which as the name 
suggests printed a spreadsheet sideways. 

13.5 ... Databases 

dBASE 

The dBASE database program was initially developed 
by C. Wayne Ratliff in 1979 under the name of Vulcan. 
However he was not able to market the software 
successfully. 

George Tate and Hal Lashlee founded a company 
called Software Plus as a discount mail-order software 
service in August 1980. In late 1980 they signed a 
marketing agreement with Wayne Ratliff to market his 
Vulcan database software. The company name was then 
changed to Ashton-Tate, Inc. The Ashton name does not 
represent anything and was selected for marketing 
considerations. Ratliff joined Ashton-Tate later as the 
chief scientist. 

The software was introduced as dBASE II for 8-bit 
computers with a CP/M operating system in January 1981. 
There never was a dBASE I, the II implied an improved 
product. It was one of the earliest full functional 
relational data base programs for personal computers. 
The software included capabilities for programming 
customized reguirements . The company offered innovative 
support services that guickly resulted in its success. 

In mid-1983 Ashton-Tate purchased the dBASE II 
technology and copyright from Wayne Ratliff. The company 
went public in November 1983. Version 2.4 of dBASE II 
was released in 1983 with capabilities to run on both an 
IBM PC computer and a CP/M operating system. 

dBASE III for 16-bit computers was released in May 
1984. It provided extended functions, pull-down menus 
and a limited networking capability. dBASE III PLUS was 
released with built-in multi-user capabilities in 
November 1985. A dBASE III PLUS LAN PACK was available 
to share dBASE III files in a network. dBASE Mac was 
released for the Apple Macintosh computer in September 
1987. However, it did not receive good reports. 



Other Software in the 1 980's 13/17 

Oracle 

Lawrence J. Ellison, Robert N. Miner and Edward A. 
Oates founded Software Development Laboratories (SDL) in 
June 1977. The company had just received a contract to 
provide software for a mass storage device. 

Before the contract was finished the company 
decided to diversify by developing a packaged software 
product. This new product would be a relational database 
system, that was first described by Edgar F. Codd of IBM 
in the June 1970 issue of the Communications of the ACM. 
It would also incorporate a Structured Query Language 
(SQL), developed by the System R (Relational) group at 
IBM's Research Laboratory in San Jose, California. SQL 
was the user interface for the database system. Miner 
and Bruce Scott were principals in the development of 
the new program that was named Oracle . The program was 
developed on a DEC minicomputer and was introduced in 
1978 . IBM had conceived the relational database system, 
but SDL had beaten them to the market (IBM did not 
release a relational system until February 1982) . 
Shortly after the introduction the company name was 
changed to Relational Software Inc. (RSI) then later to 
the Oracle Corporation. 

RSI's first customer was the Central Intelligence 
Agency (CIA) . However the CIA reguired the database to 
run on other operating systems such as IBM's or DEC's 
VAX. This and other customer reguirements resulted in a 
rewrite of the database program in the C language to 
make it portable to different computer platforms. In the 
late 1980' s, an easy-to-use version of the Oracle 
database was developed for the Apple Macintosh computer. 
This was followed by a version to run on a personal 
computer using Microsoft Windows . The company also 
developed network and client-server software for the 
personal computer market. 

The company went public in 198 6 and is now the 
world's largest supplier of database software. Oracle 
Corporation is the second-largest independent software 
company after Microsoft. 



13/18 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

pfs:File 

Software Publishing Corporation (SPC) was founded 
in 1980 by three Hewlett-Packard associates, Janelle 
Bedke, Fred M. Gibbons and John D. Page. The initial 
impetus for establishing the company was by Gibbons . The 
company president is Gibbons, the vice president of 
software development is Page and the vice president of 
marketing is Bedke. Page had created a database for a 
minicomputer at Hewlett-Packard. He then developed SPC's 
first program called Personal Filing System, that was 
abbreviated to pfs:File 

The program was developed with the concepts of 
being simple, easy-to-use and of low cost. The program 
was written in Pascal with assembler routines for 
performance critical functions. The program was released 
in September 198 for the Apple II computer. 

Other programs such as pf s : Graph, pfs:Plan, 
pfs : Report and pfs:Word have been released using the 
same design concepts. The programs have also been 
adapted for various computers such as the IBM PC and 
Radio Shack models . IBM markets the pfs programs using 
the IBM Assistant series of labels. See Sections 13.3 
and 13.4 for additional details of other Software 
Publishing products. 

Other Databases 

Informix Software Inc., is another major database 
software company founded by Roger Sippl in 198 0. The 
company went public in 198 6 and Phillip E. White became 
the chief executive officer in 1989. 

Rupert Lissner developed QuickFile that was an 
early Apple II database program marketed by Apple 
Computer in 1980. A version for the Apple lie was 
subseguently released named QuickFile lie. 

Jim Button developed a simple inexpensive 
shareware database program called PC File. He founded a 
company called ButtonWare around 1983 that was one of 
the earliest shareware companies . 

Mark B. Hoffman and Robert S. Epstein founded 
Sybase, Inc., in 1984. The company developed relational 
databases, operating systems and now specializes in 
client-server software. The company went public in 1991. 



Other Software in the 1 980's 13/19 

Laurent Ribardiere and Marylene Delbourg-Delphis 
of France developed the 4th Dimension database for the 
Apple Macintosh computer in 1985. The program was a 
powerful graphic database and was acguired by Apple 
Computer. However, due to pressure from Ashton-Tate who 
were developing dBASE for the Macintosh, Apple Computer 
decided not to release the program. The developers 
founded the French company Analyses Conseils 
Informations (ACI) to market the program. In April 1987, 
the company formed ACIUS to market the program in the 
USA and appointed Guy Kawasaki who had been an executive 
with Apple Computer as president of ACIUS. 

In 1987, Borland International bought Ansa 
Software and its database management system called 
Paradox. Borland released its version of Paradox in 
1989. 



13.6 ... Integrated Programs 



In the early 1980' s, integrated programs that 
combined features such as a word processor, spreadsheet 
and database became very popular. 

Context MBA 

Context MBA was a powerful integrated software 
package developed by Context Management Systems and 
released in July 1982 . It featured a powerful 
spreadsheet, communications program, database, graphics 
and word processor. To improve portability it was 
developed for the UCSD operating system. However the 
system was slow, was not user friendly and could not 
compete with the faster programs such as Lotus 1-2-3. 
The company subseguently went out of business. 

AppleWorks and 3 E-Z Pieces 

AppleWorks is an integrated software package 
developed by Rupert Lissner starting in 1982. It evolved 
from the QuickFile database program by Lissner and was 
initially called Apple Pie. The program was written in 
machine language. It is an integrated word processing, 



13/20 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

spreadsheet and database software package which was 
introduced for the Apple lie in November 1983. 

The program was marketed by Apple Computer and 
sold for $250. AppleWorks became one of the world's best 
selling programs and enhanced the sale of Apple lie 
computers. Its popularity resulted in the formation of 
the National AppleWorks Users Group (NAUG) . An improved 
Version 2.0 of AppleWorks was released in September 
1986. Then Apple Computer's subsidiary Claris 
Corporation, contracted with Beagle Bros, to develop a 
major update of the program. This was released as 
Version 3.0 in March 1989 and a networked version in 
August . 

A similar program called 3 E-Z Pieces was 
simultaneously developed by Lissner for the Apple III. 
Lissner sold the marketing rights for this program to 
Haba Systems . 

Subseguently a number of add-on enhancements were 
made for the AppleWorks program by other companies. 
Pinpoint Publishing released Pinpoint Desk Accessories 
in 1985 and Beagle Bros, released MacroWorks in June 
1986 and a series of TimeOut modules starting in 1987. 

3-Plus-l 

3-Plus-l is an integrated program that was 
developed by Commodore and included with their PLUS/4 
computer which was released in January 1984. The program 
included a word processor, spreadsheet, business 
graphics and a file manager. 

Symphony and Jazz 

Lotus Development Corporation introduced an 
integrated program called Symphony for the IBM Personal 
Computer in February 198 4. It was a five function 
integrated package with spreadsheet, business graphics, 
word processor, database manager and telecommunication 
capabilities. The project leader on the software 
development was Raymond Ozzie. However users felt it was 
too complex and sales were below expectations. 

Jazz is a five function integrated program by 
Lotus similar to Symphony but for use on the Apple 
Macintosh computer. It was announced in November 1984 



Other Software in the 1 980's 13/21 

for release in March 1985, but the release was delayed 
until May. The software had a price of $595. However 
Jazz received mixed reviews. It was reported to be slow 
and lacked macros as on Lotus 1-2-3. The sales were to 
some extent affected by the release of the highly 
successful Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Lotus reduced 
the price of Jazz, but it was not a successful product. 

Framework 

The Framework software was developed by Robert 
Carr who has both a bachelor's and master's degree in 
computer science from Stanford University. Carr had 
previously worked on Context MBA and at the Xerox PARC 
(Palo Alto Research Center) on software for future 
products. In 1983, Carr co-founded Forefront Corporation 
with Marty Mazner. The company was financed by Ashton- 
Tate in exchange for marketing rights to the software. 
The software integrated a word processor, data base, 
spreadsheet, graphics and communication capabilities. 

The five function integrated software package 
named Framework was introduced by Ashton-Tate in July 

1984. In 1985 Ashton-Tate acguired Forefront Corporation 
and Carr became chief scientist. Framework II, a second 
generation of the software was introduced in September 

1985. It included improved functionality and ease of use 
features . 

First Choice 

Was released by Software Publishing Corporation 
(SPC) in 1986. First Choice was an easy to use program 
that integrated four popular programs into one package. 

GS Works and AppleWorks GS 

GS Works was initially developed by Styleware for 
the Apple IIGS computer and was announced in July 1988. 
The program was subseguently purchased by Claris and 
released as AppleWorks GS . It is an integrated software 
package with a Mac-style user interface in six 
integrated modules. The modules are: a word processor 
with a spelling checker and thesaurus, database, 
spreadsheet, graphics with printing and drawing 
features, page-layout and telecommunications. 



13/22 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 



AlphaWorks, Enable, Ovation, Q & A and Smart were 
other integrated programs developed or released in the 
1980's. 

13. 7 ... Miscellaneous 

Accounting Programs 

Peachtree Software, Inc., started as a retail 
computer store in 1975 and changed to a software company 
in 1978 . It was one of the first companies to develop 
accounting software for personal computers . IBM selected 
Peachtree Software to provide an accounting package for 
the IBM Personal Computer in 198 0. The software was 
called the Business Accounting Series, that included 
general ledger, accounts receivable, accounts payable, 
inventory management and payroll modules . Programs for 
the IBM PC computer were released in August 1981. 

In 1981, Peachtree Software became a wholly-owned 
subsidiary of Management Science America Inc. Then in 
May 1985, Peachtree was purchased by Intelligent 
Systems. Bill Goodhew became the president and chief 
executive officer. Significant improvements and price 
reductions were made to the high-end software, that was 
renamed Peachtree Complete in 1986. Then in 1988, 
Goodhew, other management and outside investors 
purchased the company from Intelligent Systems . 

BIOS - Basic Input/Output Systems 

The Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) for the IBM 
Personal Computer was developed by David J. Bradley in 
1980/81. The BIOS code controls the transfer of 
information between elements of the hardware system. IBM 
made the BIOS code proprietary by copyrighting it. This 
prevented other companies from using the BIOS unless the 
obtained a license from IBM, or reverse engineered it. 

Compag Computer Corporation was the first company 
to reverse engineer the functions of the IBM BIOS to 
obtain compatibility for their portable computer 
released in November 1982 . Then Neil Colvin who founded 
Phoenix Technologies Ltd., also reverse engineered the 



Other Software in the 1 980's 13/23 

IBM BIOS software. Phoenix released a chip for IBM 
compatible computers in May 1984. These developments 
would have a significant impact on the creation of the 
IBM clone market. 

Computer Assisted Drafting (CAD) 

John Walker founded Autodesk, Inc., in 1982. The 
company purchased its main product AutoCAD that was 
designed by Michael Riddle. Autodesk is a major supplier 
of computer assisted drafting (CAD) software for use on 
personal computers by architects and engineers. The 
software is available in different versions. The company 
went public in 1985. 

Desktop Publishing 

Hardware technology that provided the bit-mapped 
screen and the WYSIWYG (What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get) 
display of text enabled desktop publishing. The hardware 
technology was refined at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research 
Center) and implemented in a practical manner on the 
Macintosh computer. This software made a significant 
difference in the publishing process by utilizing a 
relatively inexpensive personal computer. Articles could 
be readily composed by manipulating text and graphics. 
The file could then be transferred digitally to a 
publishing company. 

John E. Warnock and Charles M. Geschke founded 
Adobe Systems Inc., in 1982. Their original product 
called PostScript was derived from technology that 
Warnock had developed at the University of Utah and 
Xerox PARC. Warnock had co-developed at PARC a language 
called JaM that stands for John and Martin (John Warnock 
and Martin Newell) . This language was the predecessor of 
PostScript that Adobe introduced in March 1985. The 
PostScript software contains a page description language 
that controls the text, graphics, images and color. This 
facilitates the communication of electronic documents . A 
special font technology enables the printing of 
virtually identical characters on various printers with 
different resolutions. The page-description language 
also enables a page to be printed with a mix of text and 
graphics at any resolution. Shortly after the founding 



13/24 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

of Adobe, Apple Computer made a significant financial 
investment in the company. Steven Jobs wanted PostScript 
released for the new Macintosh computer and LaserWriter 
printer. Adobe Systems became a publicly held company in 
1986. 

Print Shop is a desktop publishing program 
developed by Br0derbund Software and announced for Apple 
computers in May 198 4. 

PageMaker is a desktop publishing program 
developed by Aldus initially for the Apple Macintosh 
computer and LaserWriter printer. Paul Brainerd and 
colleagues founded Aldus Corporation in 198 4 and 
released PageMaker in July 1985. It became a popular 
program and contributed significantly to an increase in 
sales of the Macintosh computer. The Aldus company was 
acquired by Adobe Systems in 1994. 

Ventura Software Inc., was founded in 1985 by 
three Digital Research employees. The company introduced 
in 198 6 the earliest desktop publishing program for the 
IBM PC, called Ventura Publisher. Ventura Software was 
acquired by Xerox Corporation in 1990, who sold it to 
Corel Corporation in 1993. 

Quark, Inc., initially founded as a word 
processing company, introduced QuarkXPress, a desktop 
publishing program in 198 7. Quark has become a leading 
supplier of desktop publishing programs. 

Timeworks released Publish It!, a desktop 
publishing program for the Apple II computer in January 
1988 . 

Games 

A lot of software has been developed to provide 
games for personal computers in the 1980' s. The 
following are a few of the more significant companies 
and their releases. 

Zork I was initially developed for mainframe 
computers by Tim Anderson, Marc Blank, Bruce Daniels and 
Dave Lebling of MIT in 1977. The game was written using 
a MIT language called MDL. Albert Vezza who was chief of 
the programming research group wanted to commercialize 
some of the capabilities at MIT. Vezza, Joel Berez, the 
initial developers of Zork and other associates founded 



Other Software in the 1 980's 13/25 

Infocom Inc., in June 1979. The mainframe version of 
Zork I was then adapted for personal computers and 
released in December 1980. Joel Berez became president 
and Personal Software was the initial marketer of Zork. 
Zork II was released in 1981 and Deadline in 1982. 

Douglas G. Carlston and Gary Carlston were 
principals in the founding of Br0derbund Software, Inc., 
in February 198 0. Br0derbund is a Swedish word for 
brotherhood. The company released a battle game called 
Galactic Empire and a game of barter called Galactic 
Trader for the TRS-80 computer that had been programmed 
by Douglas Carlston. The games were offered for sale at 
the West Coast Computer Faire in April 198 0. The 
programs became part of the Galactic Saga series of 
games. Shortly after the games were converted to run on 
the Apple II computer. A distribution agreement with a 
Japanese company called Star Craft allowed Br0derbund to 
market their games. A number of games such as Alien 
Rain, Choplifter, Lode Runner, David's Midnight Magic 
and Space Quarks have been successful. Through the mid 
1980' s Br0derbund expanded its product line to include 
items other than games . Br0derbund released an 
educational program, "Where in the World is Carmen 
Sandiego?" that teaches geography in 1985. Gary Carlston 
left the company in 1989. 

Ken Williams and his wife Roberta Williams founded 
On-Line Systems in early 1980. Roberta Williams 
conceived a game situated in a mysterious house with 
challenges similar to the Adventure games introduced in 
the 1970' s. Ken Williams developed the software for the 
game program that included graphics of rooms inside the 
house. The program was introduced with the name Mystery 
House for the Apple II computer in May 198 0. The game 
became guite successful and another game called Wizard 
and the Princess was released shortly after. By 1982, 
the company name had changed to Sierra On-Line Inc. In 
1984, a game called King's Quest was released. 

Terry Bradley and Jerry Jewell founded Sirius 
Software in early 1980. The first entertainment products 
released by the company were developed by Nasir Gebelli. 
The first software released was a graphic utilities 
program called E-Z Draw, then the game programs Both 



13/26 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

Barrels, Cyber strike and Star Cruiser followed. Sirius 
became a major supplier of game software in the early 
1980' s. However, in the summer of 1984, the company had 
financial difficulties and became bankrupt. 

Bill Budge founded his own company called Budgeco 
in early 1981, to market a new game he had developed 
called Raster Blaster. The program was a computer 
version of a pinball game with innovative graphics. It 
simulated the bouncing of the steel ball, flippers and 
the effect of gravity. It became a very successful game 
program for the Apple II computer. Budge then developed 
another innovative program called Pinball Construction 
Set and marketed it through Electronic Arts. 

William "Trip" Hawkins who had been a manager at 
Apple Computer, founded Electronic Arts Inc., in 1982. 
The company is a creator and distributor of recreational 
software. Hawkins contracted with independent software 
developers and created a unigue company image by 
promoting these developers as software artists, similar 
to musicians, writers and other popular stars. Other 
company strategies were the direct distribution of its 
software to retailers, an innovative process for 
managing creative software development and technology 
leverage. Two early successful programs were Pinball 
Construction Set by Bill Budge, and Music Construction 
Set by Will Harvey. The company started developing video 
game systems in 1990 and Hawkins left Electronic Arts in 
1993 to start another game system company. 

Flight Simulator is a popular game designed by 
Bruce A. Artwick that was initially sold by a company 
called subLogic. It simulates the flight of a Cessna 182 
aircraft. The game is now marketed by Microsoft. A 
version was released for Windows 95 in November 1996. 

Graphics 

Mark Pelczarski founded a graphics company called 
Penguin Software in mid 1981. An early graphics utility 
called Magic Paintbrush was released for the Apple II 
computer . 

In-A-Vision is a graphics drawing program 
developed by Micrografx Inc., a company founded by 
George D. Grayson and J. Paul Grayson in 1982. It was 



Other Software in the 1 980's 13/27 

released in July 1985. It was one of the earliest 
application programs available for Microsoft Windows . 

Michael C. J. Cowpland founded the Canadian 
company called Corel Systems Corporation in April 1985. 
Corel is an acronym for Cowpland research laboratories. 
Previously he had co-founded a Canadian 
telecommunications company called Mitel Corporation and 
a venture capital company called Bytec Management 
Corporation. However Mitel had financial difficulties in 
1984 and was purchased by British Telecom. Corel Systems 
originally focused on integrated turnkey systems using a 
laser printer for word processing and desktop 
publishing. The company then started assigning resources 
to the development of graphics software and introduced 
Version 1.0 of CorelDRAW in January 1989. The product 
was highly successful and the company went public In 
November . 

Harvard Graphics is a graphics program supplied by 
Software Publishing, Inc. 

Networks 

AppleTalk is the network software developed by 
Apple Computer for Apple computers in January 1985. 
Related software was LocalTalk and AppleShare. 

CP/NET was developed by Digital Research and 
introduced in late 1980. It connected users of Digital 
Research's CP/M and MP/M operating systems through the 
use of an arbitrary network protocol. 

GRiD Server is a software package that was 
released in the early 1980 ' s for communication between 
different GRiD computers and IBM users . 

Novell Data Systems started in 1980 as a 
manufacturer of personal computer peripherals. Between 
1981 and 1982, Safeguard Scientifics, a venture capital 
firm acguired an 8 8 percent share of the company. The 
company name was changed to Novell, Inc., with its 
incorporation in January 1983 and Raymond Noorda was 
brought in as chief executive officer. Its early UNIX 
based software was a network communications program 
called NetWare, released in 1983. This program was the 
first to introduce the concept of a file server in a 
local area network (LAN) , that controlled access to 



13/28 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

shared devices, such as disk drives and printers. Drew 
Major was the lead architect in developing the program, 
and became chief scientist at the company. The company 
became a public corporation in 1985. 

IBM released PC Network in the spring of 1985 for 
use with Version 3.1 of MS DOS from Microsoft. 

cc:Mail is a network communications electronic 
mail program that was created by Lotus Development 
Corporation. 

Other Applications and Companies 

Avant-Garde Creations was a unigue company founded 
by Don Fudge and Mary Carol Smith that evolved from a 
book publishing venture started in 197 6. The company 
specialized initially in psychological self-help 
programs such as the Creative Life Dynamic series 
introduced in 1980 that complemented their books. Avant- 
Garde also developed educational, game and utility 
programs that enjoyed some success. The company was 
acquired by David Silver, a venture financier, around 
1984 and Tom Measday became president. 

Human Engineered Software (HES) is a company that 
had a rapid rise and fall of fortunes in the early 
1980' s. The company was founded by Jay Balakrisman in 
1980, to market a utility program he had developed. 
Around 1982, Balakrisman sold his company to USI 
International, a supplier of microcomputer components 
who wanted to enter the software market. However, in 
1983, USI encountered financial difficulties and sold 
HES to new investors. HES was a casualty of the software 
market decline in 1984, and became bankrupt in October. 

Spinnaker Software Corporation is another company 
started to exploit the educational segment of the 
personal computer software market. It was founded in the 
early 1980's by William Bowman and C. David Seuss. 

In 1978/79 Mitchell Kapor wrote a program called 
Tiny Troll which did line charts, multiple regressions, 
statistical analysis and had a text editor. Following 
this he made an agreement with Personal Software (later 
VisiCorp) to develop two graphical programs to work with 
the VisiCalc spreadsheet program. The two programs were 
VisiPlot for doing charts and VisiTrend a statistics 



Other Software in the 1 980's 13/29 

package which were released in April 1981. VisiPlot was 
initially priced at $199.50. Personal Software purchased 
the rights to the two programs from Kapor in October 
1981 for $1.5 million. 

Typing Tutor was designed by Dick Ainsworth and Al 
Baker. The program was marketed by Microsoft and Kriya 
Systems in 1982 . Sat Tara Singh Khalsa was a principal 
in the founding of the Kriya Systems . 

Gary Hendrix, who was an expert in artificial 
intelligence, founded Symantec Corporation in 1982. Then 
in 1983, Gordon E. Eubanks left Digital Research and 
with Dennis Coleman founded the C & E (Coleman & 
Eubanks) software company. In 1984, C & E purchased the 
Symantec Corporation. Gordon Eubanks is the president 
and chief executive officer of Symantec that went public 
in 1989. 

TK! Solver (TK for Tool Kit) was a program that 
provided a framework for building and experimenting with 
expert systems in engineering, scientific and other 
knowledge disciplines. It was developed by Daniel 
Bricklin and Bob Frankston and released by Software Arts 
in February 1983. 

Sidekick is a terminate-and-stay-resident (TSR) 
program introduced by Borland International in mid 198 4. 
Once the program was loaded in memory, it could be 
recalled at the touch of a key or two while running 
another program. It was released in June 1984. It had an 
appointment calendar, calculator, phone dialer, address 
book and a Word-Star compatible text editor. 

Charles B. Wang and Russell M. Artzt started a 
joint venture with Swiss company Computer Associates 
(CA) International, Inc., in 197 6. Wang purchased 
control in 198 0. CA has become a major worldwide 
software company by purchasing numerous software 
companies. Although the company's main focus is on 
business software for large computers, it has acguired 
personal computer software products such as EasyWriter 
word processor in 1983, the SuperCalc spreadsheet in 
1984 and the BPI accounting software in 1987. 

Quicken is a popular personal finance program that 
was introduced by a company called Intuit, Inc., in 



13/30 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

1984. Intuit was founded by Scott D. Cook and William V. 
Campbell is the president and chief executive officer. 

Roger Wagner Publishing released HyperStudio for 
the Apple IIGS computer in May 1989. The program used 
concepts similar to the Macintosh HyperTalk system.